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  1. A form of idealism, absolute idealism is Hegel's account of how being is ultimately comprehensible as an all-inclusive whole (das Absolute). Hegel asserted that in order for the thinking subject (human reason or consciousness) to be able to know its object (the world) at all, there must be in some sense an identity of thought and being. Otherwise, the subject would never have access to the object and we would have no certainty about any of our knowledge of the world.

  2. Idealismus bezeichnet in der Philosophie unterschiedliche Strömungen und Einzelpositionen, die „hervorheben, dass die Wirklichkeit in radikaler Weise durch Erkenntnis und Denken bestimmt ist“, dass Wirklichkeit, Wissen und Moral auf Ideen und Ideellem basieren. Im engeren Sinn wird als Vertreter eines Idealismus bezeichnet, wer annimmt, dass die physikalische Welt nur als Objekt für das Bewusstsein oder im Bewusstsein existiert oder in sich selbst geistig beschaffen ist. Im ...

  3. › wiki › IdealismIdealism - Wikipedia

    • Definitions
    • Classical Idealism
    • Christian Philosophy
    • Chinese Philosophy
    • Idealism in Vedic and Buddhist Thought
    • Subjective Idealism
    • Transcendental Idealism
    • Objective Idealism
    • Contemporary Idealists
    • References

    Idealism is a term with several related meanings. It comes via Latin idea from the Ancient Greek idea (ἰδέα) from idein (ἰδεῖν), meaning 'to see'. The term entered the English language by 1743. It was first used in the abstract metaphysical sense "belief that reality is made up only of ideas" by Christian Wolff in 1747.The term re-entered the Engli...

    Pre-Socratic philosophy

    Idealism as a form of metaphysical monismholds that consciousness, not matter, is the ground of all being. It is monist because it holds that there is only one type of thing in the universe and idealist because it holds that one thing to be consciousness. Anaxagoras (480 BC) taught that "all things" were created by Nous("Mind"). He held that Mind held the cosmos together and gave human beings a connection to the cosmos or a pathway to the divine.

    Platonism and neoplatonism

    Plato's theory of forms or "ideas" describes ideal forms (for example the platonic solids in geometry or abstracts like Goodness and Justice), as universals existing independently of any particular instance. Arne Grøn calls this doctrine "the classic example of a metaphysical idealism as a transcendent idealism", while Simone Klein calls Plato "the earliest representative of metaphysical objective idealism". Nevertheless, Plato holds that matter is real, though transitory and imperfect, and i...

    Christian theologians have held idealist views, often based on neoplatonism, despite the influence of Aristotelian scholasticismfrom the 12th century onward. However, there is certainly a sense in which the scholastics retained the idealism that came via St. Augustine right back to Plato. Later western theistic idealism such as that of Hermann Lotz...

    Wang Yangming, a Ming Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher, official, educationist, calligraphist and general, held that objects do not exist entirely apart from the mind because the mind shapes them. It is not the world that shapes the mind but the mind that gives reason to the world, so the mind alone is the source of all reason, having an inner lig...

    There are currents of idealism throughout Indian philosophy, ancient and modern. Hindu idealism often takes the form of monism or non-dualism, espousing the view that a unitary consciousness is the essence or meaning of the phenomenal realityand plurality. Buddhist idealism on the other hand is more epistemic and is not a metaphysical monism, which...

    Subjective idealism (also known as immaterialism) describes a relationship between experience and the world in which objects are no more than collections or bundles of sense data in the perceiver. Proponents include Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, an Anglo-Irish philosopher who advanced a theory he called "immaterialism," later referred to as "subjecti...

    Transcendental idealism, founded by Immanuel Kant in the eighteenth century, maintains that the mind shapes the world we perceive into the form of space-and-time. The 2nd edition (1787) contained a Refutation of Idealism to distinguish his transcendental idealism from Descartes's Sceptical Idealism and Berkeley's anti-realist strain of Subjective I...

    Objective idealism asserts that the reality of experiencing combines and transcends the realities of the object experienced and of the mind of the observer. Proponents include Thomas Hill Green, Josiah Royce, Benedetto Croce and Charles Sanders Peirce.

    There are various philosophers working in contemporary Western philosophy of mind who have recently defended an idealist stance. These include: 1. Nicholas Rescher 2. Howard Robinson 3. John McDowell — Mind and World(1996) 4. Vittorio Hösle — Objective Idealism, Ethics and Politics(1998) 5. John Leslie — Infinite Minds: A Philosophical Cosmology(20...

    Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason with an historical introduction by Ludwig Noiré, available at
    Kierkegaard, Søren. Concluding Unscientific Postscript, Princeton, ISBN 978-0-691-02081-5
    Neujahr, Philip J., Kant's Idealism, Mercer University Press, 1995 ISBN 0-86554-476-X
    Watts, Michael. Kierkegaard, Oneworld, ISBN 978-1-85168-317-8
  4. Absolute Idealism can generally be characterized as including the following principles: (1) the common everyday world of things and embodied minds is not the world as it really is but merely as it appears in terms of uncriticized categories; (2) the best reflection of the world is not found in physical and mathematical categories but in terms of …

    • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
  5. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel ( / ˈheɪɡəl /; [1] [2] German: [ˈɡeːɔʁk ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡl̩]; [2] [3] 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German philosopher. He is one of the most important figures in German idealism and one of the founding figures of modern Western philosophy.

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