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  1. The French invasion of Algeria (French: Conquête de l'Algérie par la France; Arabic: الغزو الفرنسي للجزائر) took place between 1830 and 1903. In 1827, an argument between Hussein Dey , the ruler of the Deylik of Algiers , and the French consul escalated into a blockade , following which the July Monarchy of France invaded and quickly seized Algiers in 1830, and seized other coastal communities.

    • Background and Causes
    • Course of The War
    • Consequences of The Algerian War
    • Battles and Operations
    • References

    Conquest of Algeria

    Until the early nineteenth century, Algeria or the Regency of Algiers was part of the Ottoman Empire. The area was governed by local governors called dey. The population was made up largely of Arabs and Berbers, but there were other tribal communities spread throughout the provinces and the Sahara. After the French Revolution and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, the French Republichad bought 8 million francs worth of grain from the Algerians. That was to be...

    Algerian Nationalism

    The first expressions of Algerian nationalism started with the revolt of an Algerian chief, Emir Abdelkader, against French colonial rule in the 1830s. It was only a stubborn and unsuccessful opposition, Abdelkader's defence of his country can be seen as the first step to an eventual nationalist identity. It was, however, by no means the end of the resistance to the French presence in Algeria since outbreaks of armed rebellion continued throughout the 19th century. The Kabyles in the mountain...

    Effects of French colonialism on Algeria

    French colonialism had a devastating effect on lives of Algerians. By World War I, the number of settlers from France and other European countries, mostly from Italy, Spain, and Malta, reached 800,000 in a native population of 4.5-5 million. About half of the European settlers were working-class wageearners. Their standard of living was in general lower than that of their equivalents in Metropolitan France but much higher than that of Algerians. French settlers took possession of 6 millions a...

    Beginning of hostilities

    On November 1 1954, the FLN started the struggle for national independence in Algeria and declared war on France. Algerian armed troops revolted in several places and were supported by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970), who promoted Arab nationalism and decolonisationthroughout Africa. In the beginning, it was mainly a guerrilla war in which Algerian maquisards (guerrillas) attacked French settlers. The FLN called on Muslims in Algeria to unite and join in a national struggle...

    Battle of Algiers

    Meanwhile, as a way to draw attention to its struggle, the FLN began to target urban areas and larger cities. On September 30 1956, the Battle of Algiers had begun by three women allied with the FLN simultaneously placing bombs in public places in Algiers, including an Air France terminus and a popular bar for pieds-noirs.Both sides fought against each other: Algerian nationalists bombed and waged guerrilla warfare, and in turn,the French repeatedly tortured and murdered Algerian prisoners. F...

    Immediately after Algerian independence, a massive outflow started. About 650,000 people left Algeria, most of them withdrawing to France. Over the time span of four months, the total refugee population equalled five years of former migration waves during French colonisation. The sudden migration occurred during the period between the Évian Agreeme...

    ↑ 1.0 1.1 Keith Brannum, University of North Carolina Asheville, The Victory Without Laurels: The French Military Tragedy in Algeria(1954–1962) Archived 2014-10-26 at the Wayback Machine
    ↑ 2.0 2.1 Irwin M. Wall, France, the United States, and the Algerian War, pp, 68–69.
    ↑ Windrow, Martin (1997). The Algerian War 1954-62. Great Britain: Osprey. p. 3. ISBN 9781472804495.
    ↑ 4.0 4.1 Choi, Sung (2017). "French Algeria, 1830-1962". The Routledge Handbook of the History of Settler Colonialism. Routledge Handbooks.
    • 1 November 1954 – 19 March 1962
    • Independence of Algeria from France
    • French military victory, FLN political victory
    • Algeria
  2. Under the French Third Republic, on 24 October 1870, based on a project from the Second French Empire, Adolphe Crémieux, founder and president of the Alliance israélite universelle and minister of Justice of the Government of National Defense defined with Mac Mahon's agreement a series of seven decrees related to Algeria, the most notable being number 136 known as the Crémieux Decree which granted French citizenship to Algerian indigenous Jews.

    • 2,381,741 km² (919,595 sq mi)
    • French
  3. The French invasion of Algeria took place between 1830 and 1903. In 1827, an argument between Hussein Dey, the ruler of the Deylik of Algiers, and the French consul escalated into a blockade, following which the July Monarchy of France invaded and quickly seized Algiers in 1830, and seized other coastal communities.

    • Background
    • Campaigns
    • Atrocities
    • See Also

    After the capture of Algiers by France and the defeat of Ottoman troops, France invaded the rest of the country. The end of military resistance to the French presence did not mean that the region was totally conquered. France faced several tribal rebellions, massacres of settlers and razzias in French Algeria. To eliminate them, many campaigns and ...

    First Campaign against Abd-el-Kader

    Tribal elders in the territories near Mascara chose the 25-year-old `Abd al-Qādir (Abd-el-Kader), to lead the jihad against the French. Recognised as Amir al-Muminin (commander of the faithful), he quickly gained the support of tribes in the western territories. In 1834, he concluded a treaty with General Desmichels, who was then military commander of the French Department of Oran. The treaty was reluctantly accepted by the French administration and made France recognise Abd al-Qādir as the s...

    Second Campaign against Abd-el-Kader

    Al-Qādir used the Treaty of Tafna to consolidate his power over tribes throughout the interior by establishing new cities far from French control. He worked to motivate the population under French control to resist by peaceful and military means. Seeking to face the French again, he laid claim under the treaty to territory that included the main route between Algiers and Constantine. When French troops contested that claim in late 1839 by marching through a mountain defile known as the Iron G...

    South-Oranese Campaign

    In the 1890s, the French administration and military called for the annexation of the Touat, the Gourara and the Tidikelt, a complex that had been part of the MoroccanEmpire for many centuries prior to the arrival of the French in Algeria. An armed conflict opposed French 19th Corps Oran and Algiers divisions to the Aït Khabbash, a fraction of the Moroccan Aït Ounbgui khams of the Aït Attaconfederation. The conflict ended by the annexation of the Touat-Gourara-Tidikelt complex by France in 19...

    During their pacification of Algeria, French forces engaged in a scorched earth policy against the Algerian population. Returning from an investigation trip to Algeria, Tocqueville wrote that "we make war much more barbaric than the Arabs themselves [...] it is for their part that civilization is situated." Colonel Montagnac stated that the purpose...

    • French victory
  4. French conquest of Algeria (1830-1903) Part of the Algeria-European War Location: Algeria. La prise de Constantine by Horace Vernet. Regency of Algiers. Constantine; Titteri ; Oran; Emirate of Mascara Kingdom of Ait Abbas Sultanate of Tug ...

  5. The Algerian assault was repulsed and the French forces followed the Algerians to their camp up the hill. French artillery fire and bayonet charges eventually turned the Algerian retreat into a general rout. By midday the French had captured the Algerian camp and many of the forces assembled by the Dey went back home. In the camp, the French found riches, weapons, food and livestock that the Algerians had abandoned there while they fled.