Yahoo Suche Web Suche

  1. Etwa 837.000 Suchergebnisse

  1. Suchergebnisse:
  1. Authoritarianism and fascism. Authoritarianism is considered a core concept of fascism and scholars agree that a fascist regime is foremost an authoritarian form of government, although not all authoritarian regimes are fascist. While authoritarianism is a defining characteristic of fascism, scholars argue that more distinguishing traits are needed to make an authoritarian regime fascist.

  2. Autoritarismus ist eine diktatorische Herrschaftsform. Nach Juan Linz unterscheidet er sich vom diktatorischen Totalitarismus durch: begrenzten Pluralismus, keine umfassend formulierte Ideologie, weder extensive noch intensive Mobilisierung. Der begrenzte Pluralismus ist als zentrales Abgrenzungsmerkmal zu sehen. Der Handlungsspielraum von politischen und gesellschaftlichen Akteuren hängt weitgehend von der autoritären Staatsführung ab. In Abgrenzung zum Totalitarismus ist für den ...

  3. A governmentis called authoritarianif it has a strong central government, and rejects the ideas of pluralism. It is between democracyon one side, and totalitarianismon the other. Monarchiessometimes fit this pattern. As of 2020, examples of countries with authoritarian regimes include the People's Republic of China, Angola, the Republic of the ...

    • Background
    • Specific Cases
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Hundreds of scientific articles have been published investigating the connections between religion and authoritarianism. There is a distinction between psychology, which treats authoritarianism as innate to the personality, and sociology, which considers authoritarianism a result of one's environment and posits that it may be influenced by factors ...

    Throughout history, authoritarian leaders have adopted different policies towards religion, from state atheism to drawing support from religion or co-opting religious leaders and institutions. As part of civil society, organized religion serves as a mediator between the state and citizens, even under authoritarian governments. In Russia, the Russia...

    Asp, Erik; Ramchandran, Kanchna; Tranel, Daniel (2012). "Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, and the human prefrontal cortex". Neuropsychology. 26 (4): 414–421. doi:10.1037/a0028526. PMC 33...
    Kuru, Ahmet T. (2019). Islam, Authoritarianism, and Underdevelopment: A Global and Historical Comparison. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-41909-3.
    Mavor, Kenneth I.; Louis, Winnifred R.; Laythe, Brian (2011). "Religion, Prejudice, and Authoritarianism: Is RWA a Boon or Bane to the Psychology of Religion?". Journal for the Scientific Study of...
    Moulian, Tomás (1979). "Religion and Authoritarianism". Social Compass. 26 (2–3): 331–344. doi:10.1177/003776867902600207.
    • Definition
    • Assessment
    • Prevalence
    • Psychological Comorbidities
    • Relationship with Social Dominators
    • Left-Wing Authoritarians
    • Politics
    • Research
    • Causes of RWA Personality
    • Criticism and Development

    Bob Altemeyer, the Canadian-American social psychologistwho first coined the term and its meaning in 1981, defined the right-wing authoritarian personality as someone who exhibits: 1. a high degree of submission to the authorities who are perceived to be established and legitimate in the society in which one lives. 2. a general aggressiveness, dire...

    Right-wing authoritarianism is measured by the RWA scale, which uses a Likert scale response. Subjects are given a questionnaire with 22 statements, and for each statement on the questionnaire, they must express how far they agree with the statement with one of these ratings: "very strongly disagree", "strongly disagree", "moderately disagree", "sl...

    Western countries

    In 2021, Morning Consult (an American data intelligence company) published the results of a survey measuring the levels of authoritarianism in adults in America and seven other Western countries. The study used Bob Altemeyer's right-wing authoritarianism scale, but they omitted the following two statements from Altemeyer's scale: (1) "The established authorities generally turn out to be right about things, while the radicals and protestors are usually just “loud mouths” showing off their igno...

    Japan

    In 2021, three researchers from Kyoto University published a paper containing a Japanese translation of Altemeyer's RWA scale. The researchers wrote that prior to this, there were no standardized translations of the RWA scale into Japanese.This suggests that research into right-wing authoritarianism among the Japanese people is immature.

    Difficulty judging evidence

    Right-wing authoritarians have trouble deciding what facts are valid or irrelevant, and making logical deductions. Consider the following syllogism: 1. All fish live in the sea. 2. Sharks live in the sea. 3. Therefore, sharks are fish. Although the conclusion of the syllogism happens to be correct, the reasoning before it is incorrect. Sharks are indeed fish, but not because they happen to live in the sea. Whales also live in the sea, and some fish live in rivers and lakes. Right-wing authori...

    Dogmatism

    Authoritarians tend to hold stubbornly to their beliefs even when presented with evidence that suggests their beliefs are wrong. This is particularly true concerning beliefs that underpin the identity of the group. If anything, when confronted with contradictory evidence, their beliefs are often reinforced.

    Compartmentalized thinking

    The ideas in authoritarians' minds are poorly integrated. They tend to hold contradictory beliefs in their minds to a degree far greater than what is normal for humans. High-RWAs simply absorb ideas from their peers without thinking about how they fit together. In one of his experiments, Bob Altemeyer presented his students a booklet which contained the following statements on different pages: 1. "When it comes to love, men and women with opposite points of view are attracted to each other."...

    Jim Sidanius and Felicia Pratto created the social dominance orientation(SDO) scale, which describes people who crave power over others. Bob Altemeyer has used the SDO scale to study the relationship between authoritarian followers and authoritarian leaders. Authoritarian followers are attracted to domineering leaders. This is measured in one of th...

    In political philosophy, the classic definition of left-wing describes somebody who advocates social equality and right-wing describes somebody who advocates social hierarchy. The existence of the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of Chinaraised the question of whether there is such a thing as "left-wing authoritarians", since these countries ...

    United States

    Research has shown that, since the 1960s, voters who prefer authoritarian leadership styles are more likely to support Republican candidates. Supporters of former U.S. president Donald Trump were more likely than non-Trump-supporting Republicansto score highly on authoritarian aggression and group-based dominance. Furthermore, many left-leaning authoritarians have become less engaged with politics and voting. A study by Monmouth University found that 40% of people who voted for Trump in the 2...

    According to research by Altemeyer, right-wing authoritarians tend to exhibit cognitive errors and symptoms of faulty reasoning. Specifically, they are more likely to make incorrect inferences from evidence and to hold contradictory ideas that result from compartmentalized thinking. They are also more likely to uncritically accept insufficient evid...

    The roots of the right-wing authoritarian personality are mostly down to genetics, a conclusion that comes from twin studies. Education levels are also a factor, with a four-year undergraduate education found to lower RWA scoresby approximately 10%.

    A recent refinement to this body of research was presented in Karen Stenner's 2005 book, The Authoritarian Dynamic. Stenner argues that RWA is best understood as expressing a dynamic response to external threat, not a static disposition based only on the traits of submission, aggression and conventionalism. Stenner is critical of Altemeyer's social...