Consumerism is a social and economic order that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. With the Industrial Revolution , but particularly in the 20th century, mass production led to overproduction —the supply of goods would grow beyond consumer demand , and so manufacturers turned to planned obsolescence and advertising to manipulate consumer spending. 
Konsumismus ist eine Lebenshaltung, die darauf ausgerichtet ist, das Bedürfnis nach neuen Konsumgütern stets zu befriedigen. Es kann zum Beispiel der gesellschaftlichen Distinktion oder dem Streben nach Identität, Lebenssinn und Glück dienen. Eine krankhafte Extremform ist die Kaufsucht. Der Begriff Konsumismus wird meist in kritischer Absicht verwendet.
- History and Development
- Consumerism Theory
- Materialism and Gender
- Distinctions of Type
- Further Reading
In The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions (1899), Thorstein Veblen identified, described, and explained the behavioural characteristics of the nouveau riche (new rich) social class that emerged from capital accumulation during the Second Industrial Revolution (1860–1914). In that 19th-century social and ...
Since the 19th century, conspicuous consumption explains the psychology behind the economics of a consumer society, and the increase in the types of goods and services that people consider necessary to and for their lives in a developed economy. Supporting interpretations and explanations of contemporary conspicuous consumption are presented in Con...
In An Examination of Materialism, Conspicuous Consumption and Gender Differences (2013), the researchers Brenda Segal and Jeffrey S. Podoshen reported great differences in the consumerism practised by men and women. The data about materialism and impulse purchases of 1,180 Americans indicate that men have greater scores for materialism and conspicu...
The term conspicuous consumption denotes the act of buying something, especially something expensive, that is not necessary to one's life, in a noticeable way. Scholar Andrew Trigg (2001) defined conspicuous consumption as behaviour by which one can display great wealth, by means of idleness—expending much time in the practice of leisure activities...
Conspicuous consumption is exemplified by purchasing goods that are exclusively designed to serve as symbols of wealth, such as luxury-brand clothing, high-techtools, and vehicles.
The journalist H. L. Menckenaddressed the sociological and psychological particulars of the socio-economic behaviours that are conspicuous consumption, by asking:
In the case of conspicuous consumption, taxes upon luxury goods diminish societal expenditures on high-status goods, by rendering them more expensive than non-positional goods. In this sense, luxury taxes can be seen as a market failure correcting Pigovian tax—with an apparent negative deadweight loss, these taxes are a more efficient mechanism for...Thorstein Veblen (1899). Theory of the Leisure Class at Project GutenbergThe Good Life: An International Perspective, a short article by Amitai Etzioni
- Consumer Groups
- Standards and Labels
- Areas of Concern
- Related Concepts
- Further Reading
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, people in industrialized countries began formal consumer movements to ensure that they would get value for their money in terms of the things they purchased. These movements focused on the unfair labor practices of the companies, and on labelling requirements of food, cosmetics, drugs, etc. Examples of the...
In Unequal Freedoms: The Global Market As An Ethical System (1998), John McMurtry argues that all purchasing decisions imply some moral choice, and that there is no purchasing that is not ultimately moral in nature. This mirrors older arguments, especially by the Anabaptists (e.g. Mennonites, Amish), that one must accept all personal moral and spiritual liability for all harms done at any distance in space or time to anyone by one's own choices. It is often suggested[weasel words] that Judeo-...
Spending as morality
Some trust criteria, e.g. creditworthiness or implied warranty, are considered to be part of any purchasing or sourcing decision. However, these terms refer to broader systems of guidance that would, ideally, cause any purchasing decision to disqualify offered products or services based on non-price criteria that affect the moral rather than the functional liabilities of the entire production process.[clarification needed] Paul Hawken, a proponent of natural capitalism, refers to "comprehensi...
A number of standards, labels and marks have been introduced for ethical consumers, such as: Along with disclosure of ingredients, some mandatory labelling of the origins of clothing or food is required in all developed nations. This practice has been extended in some developing nations so that, for example, every item carries the name, phone numbe...
Ethical Consumer Research Associationcollects and categorises information about more than 30,000 companies according to their performance in five main areas, composing the "Ethiscore": 1. Environment: Environmental Reporting, Nuclear Power, Climate Change, Pollution & Toxics, Habitats & Resources 2. People: Human Rights, Workers' Rights, Supply Cha...
GfK NOP, the market research group, made a five-country study of consumer beliefs about the ethics of large companies. The report was described in a Financial Times article published on February 20, 2007, entitled "Ethical consumption makes mark on branding",[dead link] and was followed up by an online debate/discussion hosted by FT.com. The countr...
Conscientious consumerism is when people make a habit of buying goods from ethical companies and avoid impulsive buying from unethical ones, in order to contribute positively in political, social, and environmental ways. Such a consumer rationalizes unnecessary and even unwanted consumption by saying that "it's for a good cause." As a result, the consumer buys pink ribbons during National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, green productsto support the environment, candy and popcorn from school ch...
In response to an increasing demand for ethical consumerism surrounding gift-giving occasions, charities have promoted an alternative gift market, in which charitable contributions are made on behalf of the gift "recipient". The "recipient" receives a card explaining the selected gift, while the actual gift item (frequently agricultural supplies or domestic animals) is sent to a family in a poor community.
Critics argue[who?] that ethical consumerism has limited ability to effect structural change. Some[who?] say the actual effect of ethical consumerism is the preponderance of niche markets, while others[who?] argue that because it is difficult for consumers to obtain enough information about the outcomes of a given purchase, this prevents them from ...Speth, James Gustave (2008). The Bridge at the End of the World: Capitalism, the Environment, and Crossing from Crisis to Sustainability. Caravan Books.Bartley, Tim and colleagues (2015). Looking Behind the Label: Global Industries and the Conscientious Consumer. Indiana University Press.
- John Murray McMurtry
20. Jan. 2021 · The consumerism of the present day has roots that go back at least a century (Credit: Getty Images) The commodification of reality and the manufacture of demand have had serious implications for...
Consumerismul se referă la domeniul care vizează studierea, reglementarea sau interacțiunea consumatorilor cu piața . Mișcarea consumatorilor este mișcarea socială care înglobează toate acțiunile și instituțiile din domeniul pieței care își arată grija față de consumator.
A culture that has a high amount of consumerism is referred to as a consumer culture. To those who embrace the idea of consumerism, these products are not seen as valuable in themselves, but rather as social signals that allow them to identify like-minded people through consumption and display of similar products.