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  1. The Party of Democratic Socialism was a democratic socialist political party in Germany active between 1989 and 2007. It was the legal successor to the Socialist Unity Party of Germany, which ruled the German Democratic Republic as a state party until 1990. From 1990 through to 2005, the PDS had been seen as the left-wing "party of the East". While it achieved minimal support in western Germany, it regularly won 15% to 25% of the vote in the eastern new states of Germany, entering ...

    • 16 December 1989 (SED-PDS), 4 February 1990 (PDS), 17 July 2005 (Die Linkspartei.PDS)
    • Lothar Bisky
  2. The Social Democratic Party has its origins in the General German Workers' Association, founded in 1863, and the Social Democratic Workers' Party, founded in 1869. The two groups merged in 1875 to create the Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (German: Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands).

    • German Reich
    • German Republic
    • Well-Known Politicians in Important Offices
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    German Empire

    The party was founded on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle under the name Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein (ADAV, General German Workers' Association). In 1869, August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht founded the Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei (SDAP, Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany), which merged with the ADAV at a conference held in Gotha in 1875, taking the name Socialist Workers' Party of Germany (SAPD). At this conference, the party developed the Gotha Program, which Karl...

    Weimar Republic

    Subsequently, the Social Democratic Party and the newly founded Communist Party of Germany (KPD), which consisted mostly of former members of the SPD, became bitter rivals, not least because of the legacy of the German Revolution. Under Defense Minister of Germany Gustav Noske, the party aided in putting down the Communist and left wing Spartacist uprising throughout Germany in early 1919 with the use of the Freikorps, a morally questionable decision that has remained the source of much contr...

    Nazi era and SoPaDe

    Being the only party in the Reichstag to have voted against the Enabling Act, the SPD was banned in the summer of 1933 by the new Nazi government. Many of its members were jailed or sent to Nazi concentration camps. An exile organization, known as Sopade, was established, initially in Prague. Others left the areas where they had been politically active and moved to other towns where they were not known. Between 1936 and 1939 some SPD members fought in the Spanish Civil War for the Republicans...

    From occupation to the Federal Republic

    The SPD was recreated after World War II in 1946 and admitted in all four occupation zones. In West Germany, it was initially in opposition from the first election of the newly founded Federal Republic in 1949 until 1966. The party had a leftist period and opposed the republic's integration into Western structures, believing that this might diminish the chances for German reunification. The SPD was somewhat hampered for much of the early history of the Federal Republic, in part because the bu...

    Governing party

    In 1966 the coalition of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) and the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP) fell and a grand coalition between CDU/CSU and SPD was formed under the leadership of CDU Chancellor Kiesinger. The welfare state was considerably expanded, while social spending was almost doubled between 1969 and 1975. Changes were made to income maintenance schemes which met some of the SPD's long-standing demands, and many other social reforms were introduced, including the equalising...


    In 1982 the SPD lost power to the new CDU/CSU-FDP coalition under CDU Chancellor Helmut Kohl who subsequently won four terms as chancellor. The Social Democrats were unanimous about the armament and environmental questions of that time, and the new party The Greenswas not ready for a coalition government then.

    German Presidents from the SPD

    1. Friedrich Ebert, 1919–1925 2. Gustav Heinemann, 1969–1974 3. Johannes Rau, 1999–2004 4. Frank-Walter Steinmeier, 2017–present

    German Chancellors from the SPD

    1. Friedrich Ebert, 1918–1919 2. Philipp Scheidemann, 1919 as Reich Minister President 3. Gustav Bauer, 1919–1920 4. Hermann Müller, 1920 and 1928–1930 5. Willy Brandt, 1969–1974 6. Helmut Schmidt, 1974–1982 7. Gerhard Schröder, 1998–2005 8. Olaf Scholz, 2021–present

    German Vice-Chancellors from the SPD

    1. Gustav Bauer, 1921–1922 2. Robert Schmidt, 1923 3. Willy Brandt, 1966–1969 4. Egon Franke, 1982 5. Franz Müntefering, 2005–2007 6. Frank-Walter Steinmeier, 2007–2009 7. Sigmar Gabriel, 2013–2018 8. Olaf Scholz, 2018–2021

    Bark, Dennis L. and David R. Gress. A History of West Germany(2 vol. 1989).
    Bonnell, A. G. (1 March 2011). "Oligarchy in Miniature? Robert Michels and the Marburg Branch of the German Social Democratic Party". German History. 29 (1): 23–35. doi:10.1093/gerhis/ghq146.
    Berghahn, Volker Rolf. Imperial Germany, 1871–1914: Economy, Society, Culture, and Politics(2nd ed. 2005)
    Braunthal, Gerard (1994). The German Social Democrats Since 1969: A Party In Power And Opposition. Avalon Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8133-1535-5.
    SPD. Reichstagsfraktion Archives at the International Institute of Social History— Contains minutes of the SPD Reichstag representatives' meetings in 1898-1920
  3. Party of Democratic Socialism may refer to: Party of Democratic Socialism (Czech Republic), founded 1997; Party of Democratic Socialism (Germany), 1989–2007; Party of Democratic Socialism (Greece), 1979–1989; Party of Democratic Socialism (India), founded 2001; See also. List of democratic socialist parties and organizations

    • Formation
    • Development
    • Debate Over Joining The Communist International
    • Move to Merger

    On 21 December 1915, several SPD members in the Reichstag, the German parliament, voted against the authorization of further credits to finance World War I, an incident that emphasized existing tensions between the party's leadership and the pacifists surrounding Hugo Haaseand ultimately led to the expulsion of the group from the SPD on 24 March 19...

    During the elections for the National Assembly on 19 January 1919 from which the SPD emerged as the strongest party with 37.9% of the votes, the USPD only managed to attract 7.6%. Nevertheless, the party's strong support for the introduction of a system of councils (Räterepublik) instead of a parliamentary democracy attracted many former SPD member...

    In 1920, four delegates from the USPD (Ernst Däumig, Arthur Crispien, Walter Stoecker and Wilhelm Dittmann) attended the 2nd World Congress of the Comintern to discuss participating in the Comintern. Whilst Däumig and Stoecker agreed with the International's 21 conditions of entry, Crispien and Dittmann opposed them, leading to a controversial deba...

    Over time, the political differences between SPD and USPD dwindled and following the assassination of foreign minister Walther Rathenau by right-wing extremists in June 1922 the two parties' factions in the Reichstag formed a common working group on 14 July 1922. Two months later on 24 September, the parties officially merged again after a joint pa...

    • 1917
    • Left-wing
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