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  1. Vor einem Tag · The Lithuanian language originated from the Eastern Balts subgroup and remained nearly unchanged until ~1 AD, however in ~500 AD the language of the northern part of Eastern Balts was influenced by the Finnic languages, which fueled the development of changes from the language of the Southern Balts (see: Latgalian language, which developed into the Latvian language, and now-extinct Curonian, Semigallian, Selonian languages).

    • 3.0 million (2012)
    • Lithuania
  2. 14. Jan. 2023 · Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. There is also a dual number, which is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (Lithuanian: dauginiai žodžiai). Dual forms of pronouns used in the standard language are also optional. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it ...

  3. 18. Jan. 2023 · Lithuanian language, Lithuanian Lietuviu Kalba, East Baltic language most closely related to Latvian; it is spoken primarily in Lithuania, where it has been the official language since 1918. It is the most archaic Indo-European language still spoken.

    • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
    • History
    • Classification
    • Geographic Distribution
    • Script
    • Phonology
    • Grammar
    • Vocabulary
    • Old Lithuanian
    • See Also
    • Sources

    Among Indo-Eu­ro­pean lan­guages, Lithuan­ian is con­ser­v­a­tive in some as­pects of its gram­mar and phonol­ogy, re­tain­ing ar­chaic fea­tures oth­er­wise found only in an­cient lan­guages such as San­skrit (par­tic­u­larly its early form, Vedic San­skrit) or An­cient Greek. For this rea­son, it is an im­por­tant source for the re­con­struc­tion...

    Lithuan­ian is one of two liv­ing Baltic lan­guages, along with Lat­vian, and they con­sti­tute the east­ern branch of Baltic lan­guages family. An ear­lier Baltic lan­guage, Old Pruss­ian, was ex­tinct by the 18th cen­tury; the other West­ern Baltic lan­guages, Curon­ian and Su­dov­ian, be­came ex­tinct ear­lier. Some the­o­ries, such as that of J...

    Lithuan­ian is spo­ken mainly in Lithua­nia. It is also spo­ken by eth­nic Lithua­ni­ans liv­ing in today's Be­larus, Latvia, Poland, and the Kalin­ingrad Oblast of Rus­sia, as well as by siz­able em­i­grant com­mu­ni­ties in Ar­gentina, Aus­tralia, Brazil, Canada, Den­mark, Es­to­nia, France, Ger­many, Ice­land, Ire­land, Nor­way, Rus­sia, Swe­den...

    Lithuan­ian uses the Latin script sup­ple­mented with di­a­crit­ics. It has 32 let­ters. In the col­la­tion order, y fol­lows im­me­di­ately after į (called i nosinė), be­cause both y and į rep­re­sent the same long vowel [iː]: In ad­di­tion, the fol­low­ing di­graphs are used, but are treated as se­quences of two let­ters for col­la­tion pur­poses...

    Consonants

    All Lithuan­ian con­so­nants ex­cept /j/ have two vari­ants: the non-palatal­ized one rep­re­sented by the IPA sym­bols in the chart, and the palatal­ized one (i.e. /b/ – /bʲ/, /d/ – /dʲ/, /ɡ/ – /ɡʲ/, and so on). The con­so­nants /f/, /x/, /ɣ/ and their palatal­ized vari­ants are only found in loan­words. /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, ɕ, ʑ/ have been tra­di­tion­ally tran­scribed with ⟨t͡ʃʲ, d͡ʒʲ, ʃʲ, ʒʲ⟩, but they can be seen as equiv­a­lent tran­scrip­tions, with the for­mer set being some­what eas­ier to write.

    Vowels

    Lithuan­ian has six long vow­els and four short ones (not in­clud­ing dis­puted phonemes marked in brack­ets). Length has tra­di­tion­ally been con­sid­ered the dis­tinc­tive fea­ture, though short vow­els are also more cen­tral­ized and long vow­els more pe­riph­eral: 1. /e, ɔ/ are restricted to loanwords. Many speakers merge the former with /ɛ/.

    Diphthongs

    Lithuan­ian is tra­di­tion­ally de­scribed as hav­ing nine diph­thongs, ai,au,ei,eu,oi,ou,ui,ie, anduo.How­ever, some ap­proaches (i.e., Schmal­stieg 1982) treat them as vowel se­quences rather than diph­thongs; in­deed, the longer com­po­nent de­pends on the type of stress, whereas in diph­thongs, the longer seg­ment is fixed.

    Lithuan­ian is a highly in­flected lan­guage. In Lithuan­ian, there are two gram­mat­i­cal gen­ders for nouns (mas­cu­line and fem­i­nine) and three gen­ders for ad­jec­tives, pro­nouns, nu­mer­als and par­tici­ples (mas­cu­line, fem­i­nine and neuter). Every at­tribute must agree with the gen­der and num­ber of the noun. The neuter forms of other ...

    Indo-European vocabulary

    Lithuan­ian re­tains cog­nates to many words found in clas­si­cal lan­guages, such as San­skrit and Latin. These words are de­scended from Proto-Indo-Eu­ro­pean. A few ex­am­ples are the fol­low­ing: 1. Lith. and Skt. sūnus(son) 2. Lith. and Skt. avis and Lat. ovis(sheep) 3. Lith. dūmas and Skt. dhūmas and Lat. fumus(fumes, smoke) 4. Lith. antras and Skt. antaras(second, the other) 5. Lith. vilkas and Skt. vṛkas(wolf) 6. Lith. ratas and Lat. rota (wheel) and Skt. rathas(carriage). 7. Lith. se...

    Loanwords

    In a 1934 book en­ti­tled Die Ger­man­is­men des Litauis­chen. Teil I: Die deutschen Lehnwörter im Litauischen, K. Alminauskis found 2,770 loan­words, of which about 130 were of un­cer­tain ori­gin. The ma­jor­ity of the loan­words were found to have been de­rived from the Pol­ish, Be­laru­sian, and Ger­man lan­guages, with some ev­i­dence that these lan­guages all ac­quired the words from con­tacts and trade with Prus­sia dur­ing the era of the Grand Duchy of Lithua­nia. Loan­words com­prise...

    The lan­guage of the ear­li­est Lithuan­ian writ­ings, in the 16th and 17th cen­turies, is known as Old Lithuanianand dif­fers in some sig­nif­i­cant re­spects from the Lithuan­ian of today. Be­sides the spe­cific dif­fer­ences given below, nouns, verbs, and ad­jec­tives still had sep­a­rate end­ings for the dual num­ber. The dual per­sists today i...

    Ambrazas, Vytautas; Geniušienė, Emma; Girdenis, Aleksas; Sližienė, Nijolė; Valeckienė, Adelė; Valiulytė, Elena; Tekorienė, Dalija; Pažūsis, Lionginas (1997), Ambrazas, Vytautas (ed.), Lithuanian Gr...
    Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
    Leonardas Dambriūnas, Antanas Klimas, William R. Schmalstieg, Beginner's Lithuanian, Hippocrene Books, 1999, ISBN 0-7818-0678-X. Older editions (copyright 1966) called "Introduction to modern Lithu...
    Remys, Edmund, Review of Modern Lithuanian Grammar, Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, Chicago, 2nd revised edition, 2003.
  4. de.wikipedia.org › wiki › LitauenLitauen – Wikipedia

    19. Jan. 2023 · Litauen [ ˈlɪtaʊ̯ən; selten: ˈliːtaʊ̯ən] [5] [6] ( litauisch Lietuva, Republik Litauen, litauisch Lietuvos Respublika) ist der südlichste der drei baltischen Staaten. Er grenzt im Westen an die Ostsee und hat gemeinsame Grenzen mit Lettland, Belarus, Polen und Russland ( Exklave Oblast Kaliningrad ).

  5. de.wikipedia.org › wiki › LettlandLettland – Wikipedia

    20. Jan. 2023 · Lettland – Wikipedia Lettland Lettland ( lettisch Latvija, amtlich Republik Lettland, lettisch Latvijas Republika) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als mittlerer der drei baltischen Staaten grenzt es im Süden an Litauen, im Südosten an Belarus, im Osten an Russland, im Norden an Estland und im Westen an die Ostsee.

  6. Vor 6 Tagen · Today, the individual Indo-European languages with the most native speakers are English, Hindi–Urdu, Spanish, Bengali, French, Russian, Portuguese, German, and Punjabi, each with over 100 million native speakers; many others are small and in danger of extinction.

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