Vor einem Tag · The Lithuanian language originated from the Eastern Balts subgroup and remained nearly unchanged until ~1 AD, however in ~500 AD the language of the northern part of Eastern Balts was influenced by the Finnic languages, which fueled the development of changes from the language of the Southern Balts (see: Latgalian language, which developed into the Latvian language, and now-extinct Curonian, Semigallian, Selonian languages).
14. Jan. 2023 · Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. There is also a dual number, which is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (Lithuanian: dauginiai žodžiai). Dual forms of pronouns used in the standard language are also optional. Although grammatically the dual number can be applied to any word, in practice it ...
18. Jan. 2023 · Lithuanian language, Lithuanian Lietuviu Kalba, East Baltic language most closely related to Latvian; it is spoken primarily in Lithuania, where it has been the official language since 1918. It is the most archaic Indo-European language still spoken.
- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Geographic Distribution
- Old Lithuanian
- See Also
Among Indo-European languages, Lithuanian is conservative in some aspects of its grammar and phonology, retaining archaic features otherwise found only in ancient languages such as Sanskrit (particularly its early form, Vedic Sanskrit) or Ancient Greek. For this reason, it is an important source for the reconstruction...
Lithuanian is one of two living Baltic languages, along with Latvian, and they constitute the eastern branch of Baltic languages family. An earlier Baltic language, Old Prussian, was extinct by the 18th century; the other Western Baltic languages, Curonian and Sudovian, became extinct earlier. Some theories, such as that of J...
Lithuanian is spoken mainly in Lithuania. It is also spoken by ethnic Lithuanians living in today's Belarus, Latvia, Poland, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, as well as by sizable emigrant communities in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Russia, Sweden...
Lithuanian uses the Latin script supplemented with diacritics. It has 32 letters. In the collation order, y follows immediately after į (called i nosinė), because both y and į represent the same long vowel [iː]: In addition, the following digraphs are used, but are treated as sequences of two letters for collation purposes...
All Lithuanian consonants except /j/ have two variants: the non-palatalized one represented by the IPA symbols in the chart, and the palatalized one (i.e. /b/ – /bʲ/, /d/ – /dʲ/, /ɡ/ – /ɡʲ/, and so on). The consonants /f/, /x/, /ɣ/ and their palatalized variants are only found in loanwords. /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ, ɕ, ʑ/ have been traditionally transcribed with ⟨t͡ʃʲ, d͡ʒʲ, ʃʲ, ʒʲ⟩, but they can be seen as equivalent transcriptions, with the former set being somewhat easier to write.
Lithuanian has six long vowels and four short ones (not including disputed phonemes marked in brackets). Length has traditionally been considered the distinctive feature, though short vowels are also more centralized and long vowels more peripheral: 1. /e, ɔ/ are restricted to loanwords. Many speakers merge the former with /ɛ/.
Lithuanian is traditionally described as having nine diphthongs, ai,au,ei,eu,oi,ou,ui,ie, anduo.However, some approaches (i.e., Schmalstieg 1982) treat them as vowel sequences rather than diphthongs; indeed, the longer component depends on the type of stress, whereas in diphthongs, the longer segment is fixed.
Lithuanian is a highly inflected language. In Lithuanian, there are two grammatical genders for nouns (masculine and feminine) and three genders for adjectives, pronouns, numerals and participles (masculine, feminine and neuter). Every attribute must agree with the gender and number of the noun. The neuter forms of other ...
Lithuanian retains cognates to many words found in classical languages, such as Sanskrit and Latin. These words are descended from Proto-Indo-European. A few examples are the following: 1. Lith. and Skt. sūnus(son) 2. Lith. and Skt. avis and Lat. ovis(sheep) 3. Lith. dūmas and Skt. dhūmas and Lat. fumus(fumes, smoke) 4. Lith. antras and Skt. antaras(second, the other) 5. Lith. vilkas and Skt. vṛkas(wolf) 6. Lith. ratas and Lat. rota (wheel) and Skt. rathas(carriage). 7. Lith. se...
In a 1934 book entitled Die Germanismen des Litauischen. Teil I: Die deutschen Lehnwörter im Litauischen, K. Alminauskis found 2,770 loanwords, of which about 130 were of uncertain origin. The majority of the loanwords were found to have been derived from the Polish, Belarusian, and German languages, with some evidence that these languages all acquired the words from contacts and trade with Prussia during the era of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Loanwords comprise...
The language of the earliest Lithuanian writings, in the 16th and 17th centuries, is known as Old Lithuanianand differs in some significant respects from the Lithuanian of today. Besides the specific differences given below, nouns, verbs, and adjectives still had separate endings for the dual number. The dual persists today i...Ambrazas, Vytautas; Geniušienė, Emma; Girdenis, Aleksas; Sližienė, Nijolė; Valeckienė, Adelė; Valiulytė, Elena; Tekorienė, Dalija; Pažūsis, Lionginas (1997), Ambrazas, Vytautas (ed.), Lithuanian Gr...Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.Leonardas Dambriūnas, Antanas Klimas, William R. Schmalstieg, Beginner's Lithuanian, Hippocrene Books, 1999, ISBN 0-7818-0678-X. Older editions (copyright 1966) called "Introduction to modern Lithu...Remys, Edmund, Review of Modern Lithuanian Grammar, Lithuanian Research and Studies Center, Chicago, 2nd revised edition, 2003.
19. Jan. 2023 · Litauen [ ˈlɪtaʊ̯ən; selten: ˈliːtaʊ̯ən]   ( litauisch Lietuva, Republik Litauen, litauisch Lietuvos Respublika) ist der südlichste der drei baltischen Staaten. Er grenzt im Westen an die Ostsee und hat gemeinsame Grenzen mit Lettland, Belarus, Polen und Russland ( Exklave Oblast Kaliningrad ).
20. Jan. 2023 · Lettland – Wikipedia Lettland Lettland ( lettisch Latvija, amtlich Republik Lettland, lettisch Latvijas Republika) ist ein Staat im Baltikum. Als mittlerer der drei baltischen Staaten grenzt es im Süden an Litauen, im Südosten an Belarus, im Osten an Russland, im Norden an Estland und im Westen an die Ostsee.
Vor 6 Tagen · Today, the individual Indo-European languages with the most native speakers are English, Hindi–Urdu, Spanish, Bengali, French, Russian, Portuguese, German, and Punjabi, each with over 100 million native speakers; many others are small and in danger of extinction.