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  1. A look into the origins of the CD and how it has evolved over the years. In the late 1970s, the two companies Philips and Sony, separately developed prototypes in a bid to become the first to develop the Compact Disc (CD). Below, we delve into the history of the CD and its evolution.

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    compact disc (CD), a molded plastic disc containing digital data that is scanned by a laser beam for the reproduction of recorded sound and other information. Since its commercial introduction in 1982, the audio CD has almost completely replaced the phonograph disc (or record) for high-fidelity recorded music. Coinvented by Philips Electronics NV a...

    A standard CD is 120 mm (4.75 inch) in diameter and 1.2 mm (0.05 inch) thick. It is composed of a clear polycarbonate plastic substrate, a reflective metallic layer, and a clear protective coating of acrylic plastic. The reflective metallic layer is where audio data is read in the form of minuscule (as short as 0.83 micrometre) depressions (pits) a...

    The production of a CD begins with a digital tape master supplied by the recording studio (see also digital sound recording). The information on this tape is used to modulate a beam of light from a blue laser as it traces a spiral path on the surface of a spinning glass disc. The glass is coated with a photosensitive material that dissolves where it is exposed to laser pulses, forming the pits. This “glass master” is coated with a thin layer of nickel to form a “metal master,” and the metal master in turn is used to produce a number of “mothers.” Each mother serves as the master for several metal “stampers,” onto which molten polycarbonate is injected for molding into clear plastic discs. Each disc is exposed to a stream of vaporized or atomized aluminum, which forms the reflective layer, and is then coated with the protective acrylic layer. The entire production process is carried out under conditions of laboratory-like cleanliness and control.

    By the mid-1990s, however, developments in computer technology advanced such that CD recording and replication could avoid the need for a digital tape master. High-quality sound recordings could be sent from the microphone or other device directly to computer programs whose digital files could be stored on the computer’s hard disk (or magnetic storage media) before being transferred to a CD.

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    When a disc is inserted into a CD player, the disc’s track is scanned by a low-intensity infrared laser with a 1-micrometre-diameter focal point. In order for the laser to maintain a constant scanning rate, the disc’s rotation rate decreases from 500 to 200 revolutions per minute as the light beam spirals out from the disc’s centre. (Some CD player...

    • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. 21. Juni 2013 · 1969: The idea of a compact disc was born in the mind of Klass Compaan, a Ducth physicist. 1970: A glass disc prototype that was readable by laser was created by Klass Compaan and Pete Kramer at Philips. 1971: Intel produced the microprocessor. 1972: First color prototype of the compact disc produced by Kramer and Compaan.

    • Stephanie Ciccarelli
  3. Vor 2 Tagen · Because CD-ROM manufacturers are developing the DVD-ROM hardware, which also reads compact discs, CD-ROM drive production is expected to diminish in favor of DVD-ROM drives. The difference between the DVD-Video and DVD-ROM is similar to that between audio CD and CD-ROM. Because of the two different types of DVDs, the acronym now stands for Digital Versatile Disc.