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  1. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy organizes scholars from around the world in philosophy and related disciplines to create and maintain an up-to-date reference work. Co-Principal Editors: Edward N. Zalta and Uri Nodelman

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  2. "The Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology (ESST) addresses the grand challenge for science and engineering today. It provides unprecedented, peer-reviewed coverage of sustainability science and technology with contributions from nearly 1,000 of the world’s leading scientists and engineers, who write on more than 600 separate topics in 42 sections. ESST establishes a foundation for the many sustainability and policy evaluations being performed in institutions worldwide ...

    • The Varieties of Cognitive Success
    • What Is Knowledge?
    • What Is Justification?
    • The Structure of Knowledge and Justification
    • Sources of Knowledge and Justification
    • The Limits of Cognitive Success

    There are many different kinds of cognitive success, and they differfrom one another along various dimensions. Exactly what these variouskinds of success are, and how they differ from each other, and howthey are explanatorily related to each other, and how they can beachieved or obstructed, are all matters of controversy. This sectionprovides some ...

    Knowledge is among the many kinds of cognitive success thatepistemology is interested in understanding. Because it has attractedvastly more attention in recent epistemology than any other varietyof cognitive success, we devote the present section to considering itin some detail. But the English word “knowledge” lumpstogether various states that are...

    Whatever precisely is involved in knowing a fact, it is widelyrecognized that some of our cognitive successes fall short ofknowledge: an agent may, for example, conduct herself in a way that isintellectually unimpeachable, and yet still end up thereby believing afalse proposition. Julia has every reason to believe that her birthdayis July 15: it sa...

    Anyone who knows anything necessarily knows many things. Our knowledgeforms a body, and that body has a structure: knowing some thingsrequires knowing other things. But what is this structure?Epistemologists who think that knowledge involves justification tendto regard the structure of our knowledge as deriving from thestructure of our justificatio...

    Beliefs arise in people for a wide variety of causes. Among them, wemust list psychological factors such as desires, emotional needs,prejudice, and biases of various kinds. Obviously, when beliefsoriginate in sources like these, they don’t qualify as knowledgeeven if true. For true beliefs to count as knowledge, it is necessarythat they originate i...

    6.1 General Skepticism and Selective Skepticism

    Much of modern epistemology aims to address one or another kind ofskepticism. Skepticism is a challenge to our pre-philosophicalconception of ourselves as cognitively successful beings. Suchchallenges come in many varieties. One way in which these varietiesdiffer concerns the different kinds of cognitive success that theytarget: skepticism can challenge our claims to know, or ourclaims to believe justifiably, or our claims to havejustification for believing, or our claims to have anygood reas...

    6.2 Responses to the Closure Argument

    Next, we will examine various responses to the BKCA argument. According to the first, we can see that (C2) is false if we distinguish between relevant and irrelevantalternatives. An alternative to a proposition p is anyproposition that is incompatible with p. Your having hands andyour being a BIV are alternatives: if the former is true, the latteris false, and vice versa. According to the thought thatmotivates the second premise of the BIV argument, you know that youhave hands only if you can...

    6.3 Responses to the Underdetermination Argument

    Both the contextualist and the Moorean responses to BKCA, as discussed in the previous section, leave out one important detail.Both say that one can know that one isn’t a BIV (thoughcontextualists grant this point only for the sense of“know” operational in low-standards contexts), but neitherview explains howone can know such a thing. If, byhypothesis, a BIV has all the same states of mind that Ihave—including all the same perceptual experiences—thenhow can I be justified in believing that I’...

  3. 18. Mai 2018 · STANFORD UNIVERSITY. Stanford, California Stanford Center for Professional Development http://scpd.stanford.edu Stanford University was founded in 1891. It is accredited by Western Association of Schools and Colleges. It first offered distance learning courses in 1969. In fall 2005, there were 1,500 students enrolled in distance learning courses. Institutionally administered financial aid is available to distance learners.

  4. Notes to. Fitting Attitude Theories of Value. 1. This example is borrowed from Howard 2022. 2. Moreover, assuming that different kinds of normative relations are to be individuated according to the grounds of facts involving those relations (Leary 2020), an object-focused view would entail, e.g., that the fittingness of admiration is a ...

  5. They named the university after their son, Leland Stanford Junior, who died at young age. With one of the largest university campuses in the United States, the university includes the Schools of Engineering, Law, Medicine, Education, Business, Earth Sciences, and Humanities and Sciences. Stanford also hosts volunteer programs and a teaching hospital.

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